Russia: Sanitary Protection Zone RequirementsNov 24th, 2010 | By Victor Davydov | Category: Environmental Management
In Russia, industrial facilities are required to establish a Sanitary Protection Zone (SPZ) that protects nature and people within a designated distance of the facility.
An SPZ is a buffer zone between the operating site and nearby residential areas. It is established for industrial facilities that emit pollutants into the atmosphere or have other environmental impacts. The purpose of the Sanitary Protection Zone is to protect nearby people from harmful industrial impacts such as noise, dust and air emissions. According to legislation of the Russian Federation, an industrial facility must ensure that the air quality at the boundary of the SPZ is in compliance with established Maximum Permissible Concentration levels for residential areas. The presence of residential areas, recreational zones, schools, hospitals or food production facilities is prohibited within the SPZ of an industrial enterprise.
Determining the Size of a Sanitary Protection Zone
The preliminary size of a Sanitary Protection Zone must be established in accordance with the State Sanitary Rules (SanPiN). The SPZ size will vary depending on the type of industrial operation conducted at the industrial facility. According to the Sanitary Rules, industrial facilities are divided into five hazard classes
- Class I with a preliminary SPZ size of 1,000 meters
- Class II with a preliminary SPZ size of 500 meters
- Class III with a preliminary SPZ size of 300 meters
- Class IV with a preliminary SPZ size of 100 meters
- Class V with a preliminary SPZ size of 50 meters
Industrial facilities must develop a project of SPZ allocation and obtain approval for the allocation from the chief sanitary officer of the region where the facility is located (for facilities of Hazard Class III to V) or from the chief sanitary officer of the Russian Federation (for facilities of Hazard Class I and II). This approval is referred to as the Sanitary-Epidemiological Conclusion.
Reducing the Size of a Sanitary Protection Zone
Sanitary rules allow for reducing the size of the SPZ in cases where the level of emissions and noise at a boundary with residences do not exceed the Maximum Permissible Concentration levels for residential areas. This must be confirmed by means of a one year monitoring program.
Environmental Resources Management (ERM)worked at one industrial facility in the Russian Federation that manufactured welding equipment. According to the Maximum Allowable Emissions (MAE) document developed for the site, a Sanitary Protection Zone of 300 meters had been calculated; however, several high-rise apartment buildings were located within the SPZ. Although no monitoring had been conducted, engineering calculations in the MAE document showed that noise and air quality were unlikely to exceed the Maximum Permissible Concentration levels within the residential area of the SPZ. The MAE document recommended that the facility
- develop a project of Sanitary Protection Zone allocation
- perform one year of monitoring to confirm that air and noise quality at the boundary of the SPZ were within acceptable levels
- apply for a reduction in the size of the SPZ to the boundary of the closest residential houses.
Following collection of the appropriate data, the facility could seek the required Sanitary-Epidemiological Conclusion.
About the Author
Victor Davydov is a lead consultant in the Moscow, Russia office of Environmental Resources Management. He has a broad knowledge of Russian environmental regulations and policy issues, but concentrates on environmental permitting, compliance auditing and transaction services including Phase I and Phase II environmental site assessments.
Photograph: St. Petersburg, Russia, Church of the Savior on Blood by Natalia R., St. Petersburg, Russia.